Causes of the Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)One of the most frequent reasons for turning to the dentist is dental caries. So called the defeat of hard tissues, which begins with the destruction of enamel. If you do not take any measures and do not carry out preventive maintenance, the carious process spreads deep. Cavities are formed, various complications can join. In case of an adverse course, a tooth loss occurs.

Because of what there is a caries

The cause of Tooth Decay is the destructive effect of bacteria on hard tooth tissues. A large number of various microorganisms live in the mouth of a person, already within 2-4 hours after thorough cleaning of teeth, their number can reach 1 million. They actively attach to the surface and affect the enamel, which causes caries. The main cause of caries are streptococci – Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. Moreover, the activity and harmfulness of bacteria depends to a large extent on the resistance of the organism and the presence of predisposing factors.

The most rapid reproduction of bacteria occurs in a favorable environment for them, which is formed under different conditions. These include:

  • improper hygiene of the oral cavity, especially irregular or insufficiently effective cleaning of the teeth;
  • inefficient nutrition with an excess of soft carbohydrate food and a lack of raw vegetables;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • a low content of certain minerals (fluorine, phosphorus and calcium) in drinking water;
  • violation of the formation of teeth, which is often associated with childhood rickets or tuberculosis;
  • decreased immunity;
  • the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Such conditions contribute to a change in the structure of the enamel, insufficient cleaning of teeth from plaque and an increased content of bacteria in the oral cavity. This causes tooth decay. For prevention, these predisposing factors need to be eliminated.

How and what causes caries

In some cases, the person himself can assume the presence of Tooth Decay, based on a change in the appearance of the teeth or the appearance of certain symptoms. But for a reliable diagnosis of the disease you need to turn to the dentist, as to determine the caries allow some examinations. For this purpose, three main methods are used: vital enamel staining, ultraviolet irradiation and radiography.

Coloring the enamel allows you to determine the initial stages of Tooth Decay, for this, a special dye is applied to the previously cleaned and dried tooth surface. The sites of enamel damage do not change their color. If such violations are detected, the doctor may prescribe a remineralization course to restore the structure of the surface tissues. Such a survey can be useful in routine examinations for the prevention and early detection of caries.

Examination with ultraviolet requires cleaning teeth from plaque and subsequent drying. The areas of development of caries under the influence of ultraviolet do not emit luminescent glow, in contrast to healthy enamel.

X-ray method does not require special preparation and allows to determine the degree of destruction and condition of adjacent tissues.

Stages of Tooth Decay development

Depending on the depth of the lesion, three stages are distinguished:

  1. the initial stage of the stain or surface caries, with the first appearance of white foci of demineralization, and then the damaged enamel darkens and becomes rough;
  2. average caries, when the layer of dentin lying beneath the enamel occurs and a carious cavity is formed;
  3. deep caries, at which there is a transition of inflammation outside the dentin and the development of various complications.

The rate of failure can be different. In adults, the process most often has a chronic sluggish character. And children often have acute caries, which causes the rapid destruction of milk teeth.

What is dangerous caries, if not treated

Insufficient attention to the condition of teeth leads to the progression of Tooth Decay, from which there is a risk of development of various complications. This occurs when the infectious-inflammatory process spreads beyond the boundaries of hard tissues.

Development of pulpitis

Inflammation of the soft tissues of the tooth (internal neurovascular bundle) is called pulpitis. It is accompanied by severe pain. In the absence of adequate treatment, the inflammation takes a purulent character, the pulp dies off, the tooth tissues cease to be fed from the inside.

Development of periodontitis

The spread of infection through the channels inside the tooth causes the inflammation of nearby tissues, which are called the periodontium. If the process is of a diffuse nature, one speaks of periodontitis. And when forming a purulent cavity, the roots are diagnosed with a periodontal abscess.

How to prevent the development of Tooth Decay

Brush your teeth correctly

Cleaning the teeth should be done twice a day, the procedure should take about 2 minutes. The thorough cleaning of the inner surfaces, near-deciduous, interdental spaces and the tongue eliminates the root causes of caries of the teeth. Mechanical regular cleaning is an effective prevention of dental caries. Proper choice of toothbrush and paste will help make this process even more effective.

Use rinse aid for oral cavity

To prevent caries, it is advisable to rinse your mouth after each meal. And morning and evening cleansing of teeth is completed using rinse aid for oral cavity. Such prevention of caries of teeth can significantly reduce the risk of harmful bacterial action.

To fill the lack of fluorine

In many regions drinking water contains insufficient fluoride, which leads to insufficient strength of the enamel. To fill the deficit of this microelement can be fluorinated with water. But it’s easier to use special rinse aid. In addition to these means, you can enter more seafood in the menu, this is a natural prevention of Tooth Decay of the teeth.

Avoid taking contrasting food temperature

The use of excessively cold, hot or contrast food negatively affects the condition of the enamel, microcracks may appear on it. They become the entrance gate for carious bacteria.

Regularly visit the dentist

The dentist needs to be addressed not only with the appearance of various complaints. Regular examinations by a specialist are the prevention of the development of complications and prevent the early loss of teeth. When mineralizing the plaque and forming a dental stone it is desirable to carry out regular professional hygiene of the oral cavity. Adults need to undergo a dental examination every six months. And it is desirable for children to be shown to a doctor every 3 months, as it is necessary to determine the Tooth Decay as soon as possible.

Image credit: ProSmile

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